30Apr 2019

Sudden Sniffles: Signs & Hints That Your Pet May Have Allergies

Sudden Sniffles:  Signs & Hints Your Pet May Have Allergies

Have you ever wondered if your dog has allergies?  Maybe you and your dog both have come down with a sudden case of the sniffles.  The reality is real and in many cases, especially during the spring and summer when a plethora of dusts and pollen are freely floating about – you can rest assured that if you hear your dog sneezing more than normal, that he’s allergic to something.

Perhaps your veterinarian has suggested that allergies could be a problem?  Maybe you’ve heard it from a friend or someone else who has a dog with allergies or maybe this is your first time of hearing about how allergies could be a problem for your dog.

If you think that your dog may or may not have allergies, but you’re not entirely certain, then allow this article to help shed some much needed light into the situation.  It should be noted that allergies in dogs aren’t always as simple as one would hope.  There are several different types that could be causing the allergies and some of them aren’t the easiest to mitigate.

 

Types of Allergies

 

Skin Allergies

The three main causes of skin allergies:

  1. Flea allergy dermatitis
  2. Food allergies
  3. Environmental allergens

Flea allergy dermatitis is an allergic reaction to fleabites. Some dogs are allergic to flea saliva. This makes affected dogs extremely itchy, especially at the base of the tail, and their skin may become red, inflamed, and scabbed. You may also notice signs of fleas, such as flea dirt, or even see the fleas themselves.

Food allergies and sensitivities can cause itchy skin, as well. The most common places dogs with food allergies itch are their ears and their paws, and this may be accompanied by gastrointestinal symptoms.

Environmental allergens, such as dust, pollen, and mold, can cause an atopic allergic reactions or atopic dermatitis. In most cases, these allergies are seasonal, so you may only notice your dog itching during certain times of the year. As with food allergies, the most commonly affected areas are the paws and ears (but also include the wrists, ankles, muzzle, underarms, groin, around the eyes, and in between the toes).

All skin allergies pose the risk of secondary infection. As your dog scratches, bites, and licks at his skin, he risks opening up his skin to yeast and bacterial infections that may require treatment.

 

Food Allergies

True food allergies may not be as common as people think, according to AKC Chief Veterinary Officer Dr. Jerry Klein. True food allergies result in an immune response, which can range in symptoms from skin conditions ( hives, facial swelling, itchiness), gastrointestinal signs (vomiting and/or diarrhea) or a combination of both. In some rare cases, a severe reaction resulting in anaphylaxis can occur — similar to severe peanut allergies in humans

But what about all of those dogs that are on special hypoallergenic diets?

What most people mean when they say that their dog has a food allergy is that their dog has a food sensitivity, also known as a food intolerance. Food sensitivities, unlike true allergies, do not involve an immune response and are instead a gradual reaction to an offending ingredient in your dog’s food, for example to beef, chicken, eggs, corn, wheat, soy, or milk.

Dogs with food sensitivities can present with several symptoms, including gastrointestinal signs such as vomiting and diarrhea, or dermatologic signs like itchiness, poor skin and coat, and chronic ear or foot infections.

 

Dog Allergy Symptoms

  • Itchiness
  • Hives
  • Swelling of the face, ears, lips, eyelids, or earflaps
  • Red, inflamed skin
  • Diarrhea
  • Vomiting
  • Sneezing
  • Itchy ears
  • Chronic ear infections
  • Itchy, runny eyes
  • Constant licking

 

Diagnosing & Treating Allergies

If you have ever undergone allergy testing, then you know that diagnosing allergies is often complicated.

The first thing your veterinarian may choose to do is rule out any other condition that could be causing your dog’s symptoms. If your veterinarian feels that an allergy is a likely cause, he or she may propose allergy testing to try and determine the cause of the allergen that is causing the reaction. However, keep in mind it may not always be possible to determine the cause of an allergy with testing.

Food allergies are often diagnosed using an elimination diet. A food trial consists of feeding a dog a novel (i.e. one) source of protein and carbohydrate for 12 weeks.

Flea allergy dermatitis is typically the easiest allergy to diagnose. It is usually diagnosed by identifying fleas on your dog’s body and applying a product that kills fleas before they can bite to see if that solves the issues.

The best way to treat an allergy is avoidance of the cause and allergen. This may or may not always be possible. But, in terms of treatment, it depends on your dog’s type of allergy. For example, the best way to treat flea allergy dermatitis is to kill the fleas, whereas the best way to treat a food allergy or food intolerance is a change in diet.

In addition to any lifestyle changes that might be necessary, your veterinarian may also prescribe a medication for your dog that will help control the signs associated with the allergic reaction, such as itching and any secondary skin infections that might have developed as a result of the irritant.

If your dog has a severe allergic reaction, your best course of action is to get him to an emergency veterinary hospital as quickly as possible.

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